What, Where and How!
What is CBD?
Cannabidiol (CBD) is often referred to as a “phytocannabinoid.”
Phytocannabinoids are plant derivatives that contain a number of diverse chemical compounds that can affect appetite, metabolism, pain sensation, inflammation, thermoregulation, vision, mood, and memory.
- CBD is a cannabinoid that is a naturally occurring compounds found in the cannabis plant.
- The cannabinoids produced within the body’s endocannabinoid system are known as endocannabinoids (such as arachidonoylethanolamine, virodhamine, and many others).
- CBD is one of 85 chemical substances known as acannabinoids, found in the cannabis and hemp plant.
- Synthentic cannabinoids can also be manufactured in Laboraotories that reflect the same chemical make up as those found in the hemp plant.
Please note that phytocannabinoids are any plant-derived product capable of either or both of the following:
- Interacting directly with cannabinoid receptors.
- Having chemical similarities with cannabinoids that give them access to interact with other components of the ECS.
Where does CBD come from?
- CBD is extracted and separated from specific varieties of cannabis, most often known as hemp.
- CBD is the second most abundant compound in hemp, typically representing up to 40% of its extracts.
- CBD is extracted in oil form and is often found mixed in hemp oil extracts in varying concentrations.
How is CBD used?
- CBD oil has become an accepted means of relief from anxiety and inflammation, among a variety of other ailments.
- CBD has beneficial effects on neurodegeneration, autoimmune disorders, heart, and liver health, while also working with a number of other organs and cells within the body.
What is a tincture?
Liquid form of CBD that can be taken orally. It’s by far the most popular form of CBD, thanks to its ease of use and versatility.
How to Use:
Simply spray or drop onto your tongue and swish for 90 seconds before swallowing. CBD will be absorbed sublingually (under the tongue) at first, and then in your stomach. Effects can be felt in ten to fifteen minutes and can last between two and six hours, depending on the strength.
- Fast-Acting: CBD tinctures can get to work in just ten to fifteen minutes—perfect if you need to feel the effects of CBD quickly.
- Ease of Use: A few drops or sprays on or under the tongue is all it takes.
- Different Flavors and Concentrations: Tinctures are offered in a variety of flavors and strengths, making the taste a little easier to stomach.
- Add to daily use products: Tinctures can easily be added to a variety of your regular daily use products: water, coffee, tea, etc…
Topicals are any products that can be absorbed through the skin such as:
lotions, balms, creams, deodorants, rubs and oils. When topicals are infused with CBD and applied to areas of skin they can offer localized relief of joint pain, muscle soreness, and inflammation.
How to Use:
Simply rub the CBD topical over the desired area of your body ensuring it is fully covered.
- Ease of Use: Topical CBD products are very easy to use as most people are often already familiar with applying these types of products in their daily routines.
- Long-Lasting: CBD topicals can be extremely effective as they can ease muscle and joint pain and calm irritated skin, for long periods of time depending on their strength.
- Targets a Specific Area: Topical CBD products allow you to quickly and effectively target a specific problem area.
What are edibles?
Edibles are CBD infused products that can be consumed either sublingually (absorbing through the salivary glands) or eaten and pass through the digestive tract of the stomach.
How to Use:
Choose type of edible and serving of CBD, allow to dissolve in mouth or chew and swallow.
- Ease of Use: While other CBD product types can be quite intimidating, there’s no such problem with CBD edibles. If you’ve ever eaten a candy bar or a handful of gummy bears, you know what you’re doing.
- Fast Acting, Long-Lasting: sublingual absorbtion is the best way to get CBD into the blood stream. Edibles can work relatively quickly, and the effects can last for as long as twelve hours, depending on the strength.
- Range of Flavors: CBD edibles are a great way to mask the taste of hemp and through the wide variety available you are sure to find something that works for you.
- High Concentration: Edibles are typically infused with highly concentrated CBD in order to make them pallateable, a little goes a long way.
Overall: Edibles are great if you want something fun and tasty, or if you need a lot of CBD per serving.
Farm Bill FAQ
What is the 2018 U.S. Farm Bill?
In December of 2018, Congress passed the $867 billion 2018 Farm Bill, or Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018,” which provides important agricultural extensions, farm subsidies, nutritional policy, subsidies and crop insurance for the next five years. More importantly, the bill includes drastic changes in hemp legislation.
The bill legalizes industrial hemp, a form of cannabis with lower tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) levels than marijuana and the source of the ingredient cannabidiol (CBD). It allows industrial hemp and its component parts – such as CBD and other cannabinoids – to be processed, transported to, and sold in all 50 states.
Hemp is defined in the new legislation as the cannabis plant (yes, the same one that produces marijuana) with one key difference: hemp cannot contain more than 0.3 percent of THC (the compound in the plant most commonly associated with getting a person high).
For decades, federal law did not differentiate hemp from other cannabis plants, all of which were effectively made illegal in 1937 under the Marihuana Tax Act and formally made illegal in 1970 under the Controlled Substances Act—the latter banned cannabis of any kind.
This is a monumental victory for the U.S. hemp industry, from fiber production for commercial use to CBD products for medical purposes.
How is this different from the previous 2014 US Farm Bill (“The Agricultural Act of 2014”)?
One of the goals of the 2014 U.S. Farm Bill was to generate and protect research into hemp. In that bill, a small section — tucked deep inside — called “Legitimacy of Industrial Hemp Research” legalized hemp in two important ways.
The 2014 bill carved out an exception to the Controlled Substance Act’s definition of “cannabis” for what it terms “industrial hemp.” Industrial hemp was (and still is) defined as “the plant Cannabis sativa L. and any part of such plant, whether growing or not, with a [THC] concentration of not more than 0.3 percent on a dry weight basis.”
That year’s bill also allowed a State’s Department of Agriculture to grow or cultivate industrial hemp if it was grown or cultivated “for purposes of research conducted under an agricultural pilot program or other agricultural or academic research” and if the growing or cultivating of industrial hemp was “allowed under the laws of the State in which such institution of higher education or State department of agriculture is located and such research occurs.” Since then, at least 35 states took up the offer and developed industrial hemp programs.
The new 2018 Farm Bill continues this research effort. Section 7605 of the 2018 Farm Bill re-extends the protections for hemp research and the conditions under which such research can and should be conducted. Section 7501 of the 2018 Farm Bill extends hemp research by including hemp under the Critical Agricultural Materials Act. This provision recognizes the importance, diversity, and opportunity of the plant and the products that can be derived from it, but also recognizes an important point: there is a still a lot to learn about hemp and its products from commercial and market perspectives.
Several provisions of the 2018 Farm Bill include changes to existing provisions of agricultural law to include hemp. The new bill now treats hemp like other agricultural commodities in many ways. Hemp farmers will now be treated like other farmers. While these provisions heavily regulate hemp, the new 2018 legislation essentially makes hemp a mainstream crop.
In addition to lifting many previous restrictions from the 2014 bill, the 2018 Farm Bill essentially:
- Allows hemp production in all 50 states for any use, including flower production and CBD or other cannabinoid extraction. States will have the option to submit their own plans to regulate hemp.
- Spells out that licensed hemp producers who grow cannabis plants that exceed the THC limitation of 0.3% will not be guilty of a drug crime but instead must submit a plan to correct the “hot” hemp.
- Allows interstate commerce for hemp and hemp-derived CBD.
- Gives the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) the job of overseeing hemp production, with direction to come up with rules “as expeditiously as practicable.”
- Legalizes hemp production in U.S. territories and on Indian tribal land – which was not included under the 2014 Farm Bill.
- Gives the industry access to federally backed farm support programs, including crop insurance, federal water access and low-interest loans for new farmers.
- Allows hemp producers to “bring foreign nationals to the United States to fill “temporary agricultural jobs.”
- Removes barriers to getting intellectual property protections under federal law, such as patents and trademarks.
- Sets a 10-year ban under which state or federal drug felons cannot participate in the hemp program, except for people already growing hemp under a state pilot project (as established by the 2014 Farm Bill).
- Requires the USDA to consult with the U.S. attorney general on the hemp rules.
We still have other problems and hurdles to face, but the era of hemp prohibition is over. Hemp is now permanently removed from the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). It is forever deemed an agricultural commodity, no longer mistaken as a controlled substance, like marijuana.
Is CBD legal?
By redefining hemp to include its “extracts, cannabinoids and derivatives,” Congress explicitly has removed popular hemp products — such as hemp-derived CBD — from the purview of the Controlled Substances Act. Accordingly, the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) no longer has any possible claim to interfere with the interstate commerce of hemp products.
So, yes, CBD is now legal—but under specific circumstances and with restrictions. First, as noted above, hemp cannot contain more than 0.3 percent THC, per section 10113 of the Farm Bill. Any cannabis plant that contains more than 0.3 percent THC would be considered non-hemp cannabis—or marijuana—under federal law and would thus face no legal protection under this new legislation.
Second, there will be significant, shared state-federal regulatory power over hemp cultivation and production. Under section 10113 of the Farm Bill, state departments of agriculture must consult with the state’s governor and chief law enforcement officer to devise a plan that must be submitted to the Secretary of USDA. A state’s plan to license and regulate hemp can only commence once the Secretary of USDA approves that state’s plan.
In states opting not to devise a hemp regulatory program, USDA will construct a regulatory program under which hemp cultivators in those states must apply for licenses and comply with a federally-run program. This system of shared regulatory programming is similar to options states had in other policy areas such as health insurance marketplaces under ACA, or workplace safety plans under OSHA—both of which had federally-run systems for states opting not to set up their own systems.
Third, the law outlines actions that are considered violations of federal hemp law. It details possible punishments for such violations, pathways for violators to become compliant, and even which activities qualify as felonies under the law, such as repeated offenses.
Are all CBD products legal now?
CBD products produced from industrial hemp are no longer considered Schedule I substances. The DEA classifies CBD as illegal, although it doesn’t go after anyone using or possessing it, and it hasn’t said if it will reclassify CBD now that hemp is legal.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has and will continue to exercise jurisdiction over the regulation of ingestible and topical hemp products (such as CBD) and still considers it a drug, therefore categorizing it as illegal to be put in foods and or health products without its approval.
After the hemp legalization bill passed, FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb issued a statement saying that the FDA’s opinions had not changed and that CBD companies must obtain approval from the FDA. The agency will continue to crack down on companies that undermine the industry through misguided marketing claims.
Can I buy CBD products in my state?
The 2018 Farm Bill now federally allows CBD to be be processed, transported to, and sold in all 50 states, including states that haven’t enacted industrial hemp laws pursuant to the Farm Bill. It allows states to decide if CBD products made from hemp can be sold in their jurisdiction.
Can I bring CBD products on an airplane with me?
CBD is now de-scheduled, and as long as you have a product produced using legal hemp, and that product is not marketed in a way that is making improper health claims, then yes, you can bring it with you on an airplane.
Is marijuana legal?
Marijuana (defined as plants with more than .03 percent THC) is still defined as a controlled substance and therefore illegal at the federal level. However, it is legal for recreational use in 10 states and Washington, D.C., and available for medical purposes in many other parts of the country.
Is the pharmaceutical industry getting involved?
The passing of the 2018 Farm Bill will certainly open new opportunities for research and development within the pharma industry. In fact, it’s already begun. In June 2018 the FDA approved a CBD-containing prescription drug from GW Pharmaceuticals for treating two rare seizure disorders that can be life-threatening in infants.